發新話題
打印

[國際新聞] 印度-太平洋 (印太) Free and Open Indo-Pacific Strategy (FOIP)

印度-太平洋 (印太) Free and Open Indo-Pacific Strategy (FOIP)

「自由與開放的印度洋─太平洋戰略」(Free and Open Indo-Pacific Strategy,簡稱「印太戰略」,FOIP)
印太戰略

世界軍事對付中國 global military against China
http://www.forum4hk.com/viewthread.php?tid=14404&extra=page%3D1

五眼聯盟(Five Eyes)FVEY
http://www.forum4hk.com/viewthread.php?tid=14617828&extra=page%3D1

印度-太平洋 (印太) Free and Open Indo-Pacific Strategy (FOIP)
http://www.forum4hk.com/viewthread.php?tid=14617813&extra=page%3D1

泛太平洋戰略經濟夥伴關係協定 Tran-Pacific Partnership, TPP
http://www.forum4hk.com/viewthread.php?tid=24132&extra=page%3D1

美國副總統彭斯演說: 美國針對中國的政策方向(全文)
http://www.forum4hk.com/viewthread.php?tid=14617810&extra=page%3D1

US-India Strategic Partnership Forum (USISPF) 美國印度戰略夥伴論壇
http://www.forum4hk.com/viewthread.php?tid=14617389&extra=page%3D1

泛太平洋戰略經濟夥伴關係協定 Tran-Pacific Partnership, TPP
http://www.forum4hk.com/viewthread.php?tid=24132&extra=page%3D1

焦點評析:「印太戰略與台海和平」
https://apeptw.org/2018/09/27/%E5%8D%B0%E5%A4%AA%E6%88%B0%E7%95%A5%E8%88%87%E5%8F%B0%E6%B5%B7%E5%92%8C%E5%B9%B3/
https://amchamphilippines.eventbank.com/event/9609/

美國對印度-太平洋地區的經濟願景
America’s Indo-Pacific Economic Vision
https://www.ait.org.tw/zhtw/secretary-pompeos-remarks-at-the-indo-pacific-business-forum-zh/

Remarks on "America's Indo-Pacific Economic Vision" at Indo-Pacific Business Forum
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C7olp5U3lDk


國務卿邁克·蓬佩奧: 諸位早上好。很高興與諸位見面。謝謝湯姆 (Tom) 的美言。

感謝美國商會今天上午邀請我出席這次活動並主辦這個重要的印度-太平洋商業論壇。

我很高興看見今天眾多美國商界領導人也與我們一起出席會議。我曾長期從事這一行,大家可能忘記我曾以此為業,後來才參加競選國會(Congress)的席位,完全變了一個人。

我知道國務院和本屆政府的人員也在場。我還看見幾位在這裡常駐的和來自外國首都的大使。

感謝諸位出席這次會議並在我們為世界各地全體人民實現繁榮之際作為美國和我國企業的夥伴相互合作。

我還要感謝我的同事羅斯部長(Secretary Ross)、佩里部長(Secretary Perry)、格林署長(Administrator Green)、格里什大使(Ambassador Gerrish),以及海外私人投資公司(Overseas Private Investment Corporation)首席執行長雷•沃什伯恩(Ray Washburne),他是我從商時期的好友。你們出席這次會議真正體現了這是整個政府的使命,有助於進一步鞏固我們與印度-太平洋地區的經濟聯繫。

今天上午我準備談談川普政府(the Trump Administration)為促進印度-太平洋地區自由和開放採取的戰略,以及為什麼美國商業界的參與具有重要意義,因為這是我們促進和平、穩定和繁榮使命的一個重要方面。

去年,川普總統在越南出席亞太經合會企業領袖高峰會(APEC CEO Summit)期間首先提出了印度-太平洋地區自由和開放的設想。國家安全戰略(National Security Strategy)也對這個設想進行了詳細說明。

印度-太平洋地區從美國西海岸起至印度西海岸止,毫無疑問是美國對外政策的一個重要方面。我很快會詳細談到這一點,因為這個地區是未來全球經濟最強大的動力之一,而且今天已經如此。美國人民與全世界都和印太地區的和平與繁榮有著密切的利害關係。正因為如此,印太地區必須自由而開放。

有些人可能不太熟悉我們關於印度-太平洋地區“自由和開放”的用語。我想簡單談談本屆政府對使用這個名稱的解釋:

我們說希望印度-太平洋地區實現“自由”,是指我們希望所有的國家都能捍衛自己的主權,不受他方脅迫。在國內層面上,“自由”意味著良好的治理,保障公民享有各項基本權利和自由。

我們說我們希望印度-太平洋地區實現“開放”,是指我們希望所有的國家享有海上和空中的開放通道。我們希望和平解決領土和海事糾紛。這對於國際和平和各國實現本國的夢想至關重要。

在經濟方面,“開放”意味著公平和對等的貿易、開放的投資環境、國家間透明的協議和為促進地區關係加強相互聯繫,因為這些都是可持續增長的途徑。

美國對印度-太平洋地區自由和開放的承諾由來已久。我所代表的國務院於1794年就在當年被稱為“Calcutta”的加爾各答(Kolkata)建立了領事館。

在座的大多數人都是美國企業界的代表。美國企業家在印度-太平洋地區從事貿易和投資的時間甚至更長。我不想在這裡詳談全部歷史,但我需要指出,美國為我們今天在印度-太平洋各地看到的增長、發展和繁榮發揮了基本的推動作用。

我們遵循這樣一個偉大的宗旨進行交往:在所到之處,美國都希望發展夥伴關係,不謀求霸權。第二次世界大戰(World War II)結束後,我們與日本一起結成了偉大的聯盟,促進了經濟繁榮。上世紀50年代,韓國受到戰爭的重創。美國在鐵路、港口等基礎設施領域提供援助和投資,幫助我們的韓國朋友奠定了復甦和繁榮的基礎,建立了全世界最偉大的經濟體之一,現在已有足夠的實力為其他國家的發展提供援助。

上世紀60年代,我們為解決基本的發展需要發展夥伴關係。我們支持農業改造工作,例如永久改善全世界小麥和大米種植的綠色革命(Green Revolution)。在這方面,印度-太平洋地區的情況最為顯著。我們幫助香港(Hong Kong)、新加坡和其他東南亞經濟體從上世紀70年代開始實現經濟起飛。在台灣,經濟發展和創造一個開放、民主的社會有密不可分的關係,所以才能發展成為高科技重鎮。美國很高興支持東南亞國家聯盟(ASEAN)、亞太經合會(APEC)、亞洲開發銀行(Asian Development Bank)等基礎性機制。

鑑於上述經濟和商業交往的歷史,如今美國在印度-太平洋各地的關係一貫以相互信任和尊重為特徵。

美國的友誼受到歡迎,美國商業以其創造性、可靠性和誠信著稱於世。

….

[ 本帖最後由 后太禧慈 於 2018-10-15 00:34 編輯 ]
路人

TOP

美國對印度-太平洋地區的經濟願景
America’s Indo-Pacific Economic Vision

….

今天,沒有任何國家在印度-太平洋地區的雙向貿易超過美國。在東南亞,按外來投資單一來源累積法計算,美國是最大的來源國,超過了中國、日本和歐盟(European Union)。

打開今天的印度-太平洋地圖,美國公共和民間部門為支持自力更生,建設機制和促進民間部門增長進行的努力隨處可見。

在菲律賓,以達拉斯(Dallas)為基地的德州儀器公司(Texas Instruments)在1979年開設工廠,幫助該國成為全球半導體供應鏈上的一個重要環節。

在馬來西亞,通用電器公司(General Electric)在1975年首開先河,投資建立了銷售和服務中心。今天,通用電氣公司在該國有1,300名僱員,人員遍及吉隆坡(Kuala Lumpur)和砂拉越(Sarawak)等地。

馬來西亞最近選出了新政府,我希望他們及其領導人認識到,美國將一如既往,如同為該地區的夥伴進行的努力一樣,以我們共同的民主價值為基礎增進商業、政府和人民與人民之間的聯繫。下星期我將前往那裡訪問。

雪佛龍公司(Chevron)作為第一個得到泰國石油開採權的公司,1973年在泰國水域發現了第一個碳氫化合物,催生了當地一個重要的行業。如今,雪佛龍是泰國最大的天然氣和原油生產商,其投資款項支持了200,000多個工作崗位。與此同時,雪佛龍的“科學工程興趣項目”(Enjoy Science Project)為當地科學、技術、工程和數學領域的教師提供訓練,加強泰國的知識資本,也使雪佛龍公司的投資獲得更大的回報。

為了援救最近在被水淹沒的山洞內受困的勇敢的學童和他們的教練,雪佛龍的泰國分部還提供了有關的設備和技術諮詢。

美國公司名副其實地幫助印度-太平洋夥伴國家飛向星空。美國最有創意的公司之一太空X(SpaceX)最近發射了孟加拉國有史以來本國第一枚通訊衛星。

必須說明的是,美國政府不對美國公司發號施令。但是我們幫助打造環境,讓美國公司能夠成功,讓地方社區能夠繁榮,讓雙邊夥伴關係能夠發展。正因為這樣,美國支持許多教育合作,例如越南傅爾布萊特大學(Fulbright University Vietnam)和東南亞青年領袖計劃(Young Southeast Asian Leaders Initiative)等。

我們過去也作出過這樣的努力,幫助建立起第一所印度理工學院(Indian Institute of Technology),以及印度全國的14所地區工程院校和8所農業大學。

開發融資也很重要。我們的海外私人投資公司在印度-太平洋擁有39億美元投資組合,同時還有從能源、醫療保健到金融行業的美國公司。

海外私人投資公司每投入一美元,私人行業就投入了2.76美元。在印度尼西亞,海外私人投資公司與美國國際發展署(USAID)和設在科羅拉多州的UPC Renewables再生能源公司聯手,建造了印度尼西亞第一座公用公司規模的風能電場,為7萬多印尼家庭提供清潔、經濟、可靠的電力。

我們的世紀挑戰集團(Millennium Challenge Corporation)自2004年以來,撥專款21億美元,促進印度-太平洋國家的發展與良政。目前,世紀挑戰集團斥資5億美元,在尼泊爾建起數百公里的輸電線,使尼泊爾實現其能源潛力。今天,在這個印度-太平洋商業論壇上,我驕傲地宣布,世紀挑戰集團與蒙古政府簽署了3.5億美元的合同,開發新的長期供水資源。

這不僅將幫助滿足蒙古國人的一個重要需要,而且將使蒙古可以吸引到新投資計劃,刺激由私人行業帶動的增長。我知道蒙古外長原計劃來這裡,但很遺憾被其他公務纏身而無法成行。

這個世紀挑戰集團項目將使蒙古、那一地區和全世界受益。

我還可以講很多,給你們舉出更多例子。美國公司一直是致力於整個印度太平洋地區繁榮和福祉的生力軍。

我們作為夥伴的誠意明顯體現在,我們支持的是尊重地方自主和國家主權的經濟發展。

美利堅合眾國(United States of America)不是為政治影響而投資,而是奉行合作關係經濟學。

過去和現在的成功只是我預計將要到來的未來的前奏。我在這裡要強調表示,川普政府正在擴大我們在印度太平洋地區的經濟交往。

我們尋求依照我們的自由與開放的原則來利用並投資創造機會。

正如川普總統去年在越南所說,在印度-太平洋,“美麗的國家群星薈萃,每個國家都是一顆明星,不是任何人的衛星——每個國家自成一國人,一個文化,一種生活方式,一個家園”。這個星座要發出最明亮的光芒,就需要以創新和可持續發展作為燃料。這就是我們的印度-太平洋戰略所要推進的。

我們相信戰略夥伴關係,而不是戰略依賴關係。

正如川普總統去年所說,“我們希望你們強大、繁榮和自力更生,紮根你們的歷史,面向未來伸展”。今天,我重申這一訊息。當我說,每個國家和企業可以相信美國會繼續在自由開放的印度-太平洋地區創造共同繁榮的條件時,我是代表川普總統說話。

深化在這一地區的往來顯然符合美國的戰略利益。這裡有超過全球三分之一的人口。世界上六個最大的經濟體有四個在這裡,它們是中國、日本、印度——當然,還有美國。東協十國是世界上發展最快的經濟區,也是美國出口的主要購買者。川普總統將趁熱打鐵,因為這裡顯然對美國人民有經濟利益。

我們的印度-太平洋願景不排除任何國家。我們謀求與任何倡導自由與開放的國家合作,只要合作是本著我們的公民所要求的最高標準。美國致力於在這一地區擴大存在,因為我們希望美國人和印度太平洋地區的所有人都來分享2020年、2030年、2040年以至更遠的經濟成長。

我知道,鑑於川普總統決定撤出跨太平洋夥伴關係(TPP),有些人對美國的經濟作用有疑問。我們一方面在與夥伴國制定更好和更高標準的雙邊貿易協定,另一方面,我們的公司正在透過擴大在這一地區的存在,繼續推動美國的經濟利益。例如,僅在過去兩年裡,美國公司在新加坡的數量就增加了10%。

最後,我們致力於保持在印度-太平洋地區的經濟交往是因為它對美國人民和我們夥伴的國家安全有利。正如川普總統的國家安全戰略所闡述的,“經濟安全是國家安全”。

很顯然,美國的國際經濟未來有很大一部分是在這個地區。因此,就像美國過去作基礎貢獻一樣,今天我宣布,美國將通過1.13億美元的新計劃,支持未來的基礎領域:數位經濟、能源和基礎建設。

這些資金僅僅是美國對印度-太平洋地區和平與繁榮的新時代經濟承諾的定金。

我們的戰略是要激發美國企業發揮它們的最佳優勢。川普總統也期待我們的承諾將促使所有抱有同樣的以主權、法治和可持續繁榮為基礎的地區願景的國家,為自由和開放的印度-太平洋地區帶來更大支持。

第一項計劃是數位連結和網絡安全合作關係(Digital Connectivity and Cybersecurity Partnership)。它將從一個2,500萬美元初步投資起步,改進夥伴國家的數位連結,擴大美國的技術出口。美國將通過提供技術援助和政府-民間合作關係支持通訊基礎設施開發;提倡市場導向的數位管理政策;為夥伴提供網絡安全能力建設,以應對共同的威脅。

我們這樣做是因為我們認識到,一個開放、安全和可靠的網際網路具有的巨大經濟和社會效益。

我們的下一個行動計劃是亞洲 EDGE。這是指透過能源增進發展和成長(Enhancing Development and Growth through Energy)。能源當然是現代經濟的生命線。透過亞洲 EDGE,我們今年一年就將投資近5,000萬美元,以幫助印度-太平洋地區的合作夥伴進口、生產、運輸、儲存及部署他們的能源資源。

美國豐富的能源包括巨大的天然氣資源、全世界領先的私營公司、精密的發展-融資工具,以及無可匹敵的技術專長。我們將依賴所有這些在整個印太地區發展可持續的、安全的能源市場。

第三,接下來是基礎建設。美國致力於能推動國家主權、區域性一體化及信任的互聯互通。

這在基礎建設的實體安全、在財政上可行,以及對社會負責的條件下才能實現。因此,今天,美國正在發起一個基礎建設交易及援助網絡(Infrastructure Transaction and Assistance Network),以促進方式正確的基礎設施建設。這項整個政府參與的行動計劃以近3,000萬美元作為種子資金,建立了一個新型跨部門機構,以協調、增強並分享美國用於尋找項目、融資及技術援助的工具。

它還將建立一個新的印太交易顧問基金(Indo-Pacific Transaction Advisory Fund),以幫助合作夥伴獲得私營的法律及金融顧問服務。

在上述每個領域——數位經濟、能源和基礎建設——我們都期待同盟友及夥伴合作。我們還期待利用新型的、現代化的工具,以及眾議院剛剛通過、現已送交參議院的“建設法案”(BUILD Act)得到改進的項目。這是一個重大法案。

根據這項眾議院議案,美國政府的發展融資能力將增加一倍多,達到600億美元 。

請讓我就資金問題再談一點。川普總統——而且我知道今天在座的大多數人——不喜歡浪費一分錢——而這種投資絕不是浪費。這也不是把錢給別人。這是對今後多年全世界最具競爭力地區的一種戰略性美國投資。

我們自豪地支持“建設法案”,並撥款1.13億美元立即作為新資金用於擴大在印太地區的經濟參與。本週晚些時候,我將進一步宣布有關安全援助事宜。

但我們也知道單憑政府撥款根本無法滿足印太地區的需求。據亞洲開發銀行(Asian Development Bank)統計,該地區的發展中國家僅在基礎建設一個方面到2030年就需要26萬億美元。

任何一國政府或數國政府都拿不出這麼多錢。只有私營部門才能做到。而且只有各國做到歡迎私人投資,這些數万億美元資金才會不再閒置,而是被投入到他們的經濟中,以及為他們的人民帶來就業和繁榮的具有生產力的各項事業中。

為使之成為現實,印太領導人必須以透明度、反腐敗和負責任的融資為首要重點。

美國政府的印太行動計劃將根據這些價值觀打造,並由同美國公司的夥伴關係支撐。這將從高標準、透明度以及遵守法治中體現出美國價值觀。

對於美國公司,全世界的公民都知道他們所看到的就是事實:誠實的合同,誠實的規定,沒必要通過暗盤操作搞鬼。

公司業務的誠信是我們的印太經濟願景的一個至關重要的支柱,而且也是該地區的每個國家所需要的。

我在結束今天的講話前希望每個人都明白一點:這是一項承諾。我身為國務卿做出保證,我將同你們保持接觸。我將同國會以及我們的外國同仁保持接觸。我們的大使們以及其他官員們也將這麼做。我在幾週前高興地對越南進行了我的首次訪問,而且今年還將對這個地區進行更多次訪問。

其中一次訪問將於本週三開始。我將前往馬來西亞,去新加坡,然後在周末到印度尼西亞。我期待著同該地區的政界和商界領導人討論我今天同你們談到的所有問題。

東協(ASEAN)就位於印太地區的中心,而且在美國正在提出的印太願景中發揮著一種核心作用。這是1.13億美元將包括一項美國支持重要區域性機構的計劃的原因之一,例如東協以及我們的《美國-東協聯通行動計劃》(US-ASEAN Connect initiative)、亞太經合會(APEC)、《湄公河下游行動計劃》(Lower Mekong Initiative),以及環印度洋聯盟( Indian Ocean Rim Association)。本週晚些時候還會有更多相關內容。

川普政府對於美國在21世紀的印太地區有一個明確的願景。

這是一個與該地區的經濟、政治、文化和安全事務深入相連的美國願景。與我們的很多亞洲盟友和友邦一樣,我們的國家曾為自己的獨立而戰,脫離了一個要求得到遵從的帝國。因此,我們從來沒有而且永遠不會尋求在印太地區稱霸,並且會反對任何國家這樣做。

我們期望有一種地區秩序,其中的獨立國家能夠保衛自己的人民,並在一個國際市場中公平競爭。我們準備好增進我們的夥伴的安全,並幫助他們以確保人類尊嚴的方式發展他們的經濟和社會。我們將幫助他們。我們將幫助他們讓自己的人民免遭脅迫,或免遭強權控制。

今天,我籲請希望將這些價值觀銘刻在該地區的任何一個國家及公司企業與美國政府結成夥伴。一個自由、開放的印太地區是美國所選擇的道路——而且我們希望這也將是你們的選擇。

謝謝你們,上帝保佑你們,祝願你們有美好的一天。
路人

TOP

美國副總統彭斯演說: 美國針對中國的政策方向(全文)
http://www.forum4hk.com/viewthread.php?tid=14617810&extra=page%3D1
路人

TOP

Remarks on "America's Indo-Pacific Economic Vision"
https://www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2018/07/284722.htm

SECRETARY POMPEO: Good morning, everyone. It’s great to be with you. Thank you, Tom, for the kind introduction. Thanks to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce for having me here and hosting this important Indo-Pacific Business Forum as well. I’m glad to see, too, many American business leaders with us here today. I did this for a long time – people forget that’s what I did for a living before I lost my mind and ran for Congress.

I know there’s also folks from State Department here and from the administration. I also see a number of ambassadors for – that are stationed here and those from foreign capitals. Thank you all for being here and for partnering with the United States and our businesses as we pursue prosperity for all people across the world.

I also want to thank my colleagues Secretary Ross, Secretary Perry, Administrator Green, Ambassador Gerrish, Ray Washburne, too, at OPIC, a good friend of mine from my business days. Your president helps – your presence helps solidify our economic approach to the Indo-Pacific as a truly whole-of-government mission.

I wanted to come here this morning to talk about the Trump administration’s strategy for advancing a free and open Indo-Pacific, and why U.S. business engagement is at the center of it – it’s a staple of our mission to promote peace, stability, and prosperity.

President Trump first outlined his vision for a free and open Indo-Pacific at the APEC CEO Summit in Vietnam just last year. The National Security Strategy also detailed that vision. Make no mistake, the Indo-Pacific, which stretches from the United States west coast to the west coast of India, is a subject of great importance to American foreign policy. As I will detail in a bit, this region is one of the greatest engines of future global – of the future global economy, and it already is today. And the American people and the whole world have a stake in the Indo-Pacific’s peace and prosperity. It’s why the Indo-Pacific must be free and open.

And for those of you who might not be familiar with our terminology of “free and open,” I want to just spend a minute talking about what it is this administration means when it uses that language.

When we say “free” Indo-Pacific, it means we all want all nations, every nation, to be able to protect their sovereignty from coercion by other countries. At the national level, “free” means good governance and the assurance that citizens can enjoy their fundamental rights and liberties.

When we say “open” in the Indo-Pacific, it means we want all nations to enjoy open access to seas and airways. We want the peaceful resolution of territorial and maritime disputes. This is key for international peace and for each country’s attainment of its own national aims.

Economically, “open” means fair and reciprocal trade, open investment environments, transparent agreements between nations, and improved connectivity to drive regional ties – because these are the paths for sustainable growth in the region.

The U.S. commitment to a free and open Indo-Pacific is deeply rooted. The State Department, which I represent, established a consular presence in Kolkata – then called Calcutta – in 1794.

….
路人

TOP

Remarks on "America's Indo-Pacific Economic Vision"
….

American entrepreneurs, whom most of you in this room represent, have been trading and investing in the Indo-Pacific even longer than that. And I won’t give you a full history today, but I will note how the United States has played a foundational role in enabling the growth, development, and wealth we see across the entire Indo-Pacific today.

The great theme of our engagement is this: Where America goes, we seek partnership, not domination. After World War II we worked with Japan to forge a great alliance and stimulate an economic boom. South Korea in the ‘50s was ravaged by conflict. American assistance and investment in railways, ports, and other infrastructure helped create a foundation for our South Korean friends to recover, thrive, and build one of the world’s most prosperous economies – one that is now strong enough to aid other countries in their development.

In the ‘60s, we grew partnerships to address basic developmental needs. We supported transformational agricultural efforts, such as the Green Revolution, which forever improved farming of wheat and rice worldwide – and nowhere more than in the Indo-Pacific. We helped Hong Kong, Singapore, and other Southeast Asian economies rise from the ‘70s onward. In Taiwan, economic development went hand-in-hand with creating an open, democratic society that blossomed into a high-tech powerhouse. And America was proud to support foundational institutions like ASEAN, APEC, and the Asian Development Bank, among others.

Thanks to this history of economic and commercial engagements, America’s relationships throughout the Indo-Pacific today are characterized by mutual trust and respect. American friendship is welcomed, and American businesses are recognized for their ingenuity, their reliability, and their honesty.

Today no country does more two-way trade in the Indo-Pacific than the United States. In Southeast Asia, the U.S. is the single largest source of cumulative foreign investment – larger than China, Japan and the European Union.

Open a map of the Indo-Pacific today, and it is dotted with U.S. public and private efforts to foster self-reliance, build institutions, and promote private sector growth.

In the Philippines, Dallas-based Texas Instruments opened a factory in 1979 that helped the country turn into a crucial part of the global semiconductor supply chain. In Malaysia, General Electric first invested in a sales and service center in 1975. Today GE has over 1,300 employees in the country, from Kuala Lumpur to Sarawak. With Malaysians recently having elected a new government, I want them and their leaders to know that America stands ready, as we always do for partners around the region, to deepen commercial, government, people-to-people ties – all based on our shared democratic values. I’ll travel there in the week ahead.

Chevron was the first company ever granted oil-exploration rights in Thailand, and in 1973 it discovered the first hydrocarbons in Thai waters. This gave birth to a major local industry. Today Chevron is Thailand’s top natural gas and crude oil producer, and its investments support more than 200,000 jobs. Meanwhile, Chevron’s “Enjoy Science Project” trains local teachers in science, technology, engineering, and math to strengthen Thailand’s intellectual capital and help Chevron make greater returns on its investment. Chevron’s Thailand unit even provided equipment and technical advice for the recent rescue of those courageous boys and their coach who were trapped in a flooded cave.

U.S. companies literally help Indo-Pacific partner nations reach for the stars. SpaceX, one of America’s most innovative firms, recently launched Bangladesh’s first-ever indigenous communications satellite.

Now, to be clear, the U.S. Government doesn’t tell American companies what to do. But we help build environments that foster good, productive capitalism. We help American firms succeed so that local communities can flourish, and bilateral partnerships can grow.

That’s why the United States supports educational efforts such as Fulbright University Vietnam and the Young Southeast Asian Leaders Initiative. This is the same kind of commitment we showed in the past when we helped establish the first Indian Institute of Technology, along with 14 regional engineering colleges and eight agricultural universities all across India.

Development finance is also important. Our Overseas Private Investment Corporation has a portfolio of 3.9 billion invested in the Indo-Pacific alongside American firms in industries from energy to healthcare to banking. For every dollar that OPIC has invested, the private sector has invested $2.76. In Indonesia, OPIC has teamed up with USAID and Colorado-based UPC Renewables to develop the country’s first utility-scale wind farm, to provide clean, affordable, reliable power to 70,000 Indonesian households.

And our Millennium Challenge Corporation has granted $2.1 billion since 2004 to promote development and good governance in Indo-Pacific nations. Right now MCC is spending 500 million to build hundreds of kilometers of electricity transmission lines in Nepal and realize that country’s energy potential.

And today, at this Indo-Pacific Business Forum, I am proud to announce that MCC has signed a $350 million compact with the Government of Mongolia to develop new, long-term sources of water supply. In addition to helping Mongolia fulfill a critical human need, this will position the country to attract new investment and stimulate private sector-led growth. I know that the Mongolian foreign minister had intended to be here today, but he was unfortunately called away for business.

This MCC program will benefit both Mongolia, the region, and the world.

I could go on much longer and give you more examples. American companies have been a force for prosperity and good throughout the Indo-Pacific region. Our good faith as a partner is evident in our support of economic development that honors local autonomy and national sovereignty. The United States does not invest for political influence, but rather practices partnership economics.

The successes of the past and present are just a prelude to what I expect will come in the future. I am here to say emphatically that the Trump administration is committed to expanding our economic engagement in the Indo-Pacific region. We seek to capitalize on opportunities in accordance with the principles of freedom and openness.

As President Trump said in Vietnam last year, the Indo-Pacific is “a beautiful constellation of nations, each its own bright star, satellites to none – and each one a people, a culture, a way of life, a home.” To burn the brightest, this constellation needs the fuel of innovation and sustainable growth. This is what our Indo-Pacific strategy will promote. We believe in strategic partnerships, not strategic dependency.

As President Trump said last year, “We want you to be strong, prosperous, and self-reliant, rooted in your history, and reaching out toward the future.” Today I echo that message. I speak for President Trump when I say every nation and business can have confidence that the United States will continue to create the conditions for mutual prosperity in a free and open Indo-Pacific.

It is clearly in America’s strategic interest to deepen engagement in the region. More than one-third of the global population is there. Four of the world’s six largest economies are there as well, in China, Japan, and India – and of course, the United States. The ten countries of the ASEAN community are the fastest-growing economic zone in the world and are major buyers of U.S. products. President Trump will strike while the iron is hot, because there are clear economic benefits at hand for the American people.

Our Indo-Pacific vision excludes no nation. We seek to work with anyone to promote a free and open Indo-Pacific, so long as that cooperation adheres to the highest standards that our citizens demand. The United States is committed to growing our presence in the region because we want Americans and all people of the Indo-Pacific to share in the economic growth of 2020, 2030, 2040, and beyond.

I know some are wondering about America’s role in the region in light of President Trump’s decision to pull out of TPP. While we work with our partners to craft better and higher-standard bilateral trade agreements, our companies are continuing to advance U.S. economic interests by growing their presence in the region. For example, the number of U.S. companies in Singapore has increased 10% over just the past two years.

Finally, we remain committed to economic engagement in the Indo-Pacific because of the national security benefits for the American people and our partners. As President Trump’s National Security Strategy states, “Economic security is national security.”

It’s clear a big part of America’s international economic future is in this region. So just as the United States made foundational contributions in the past, today I am announcing $113 million in new U.S. initiatives to support foundational areas of the future: digital economy, energy, and infrastructure. These funds represent just a down payment on a new era in U.S. economic commitment to peace and prosperity in the Indo-Pacific region.

Our strategy seeks to catalyze American businesses to do what they do best. President Trump also expects our commitment to generate greater support for a free and open Indo-Pacific from all countries that share our vision of a region rooted in sovereignty, the rule of law, and sustainable prosperity.

The first initiative is the Digital Connectivity and Cybersecurity Partnership. This will start with a $25 million dollar initial investment to improve partner countries’ digital connectivity and expand opportunities for U.S. technology exports. The U.S. will support communications infrastructure development through technical assistance and public-private partnerships; promote market-driven digital regulatory policies; and build partners’ cybersecurity capacity to address common threats. We do this because we recognize the tremendous economic and social benefits that come with an open, secure, and reliable internet.

The second initiative is called Asia EDGE. It stands for Enhancing Development and Growth through Energy. Energy is of course the lifeblood of a modern economy. Through Asia EDGE, we will invest nearly $50 million this year alone to help Indo-Pacific partners import, produce, move, store, and deploy their energy resources. America’s energy bounty includes vast natural resources, world-leading private firms, sophisticated development-financial tools, and peerless technical expertise. We will draw on all of these to grow sustainable and secure energy markets throughout the Indo-Pacific.

Third, next, infrastructure. The United States is committed to connectivity that advances national sovereignty, regional integration, and trust. This occurs when infrastructure is physically secure, financially viable, and socially responsible.

So today the U.S. is launching an Infrastructure Transaction and Assistance Network to boost the development of infrastructure done right. This whole-of-government initiative, seeded with nearly $30 million dollars, establishes a new interagency body to coordinate, strengthen, and share U.S. tools for project scouting, financing, and technical assistance. It also establishes a new Indo-Pacific Transaction Advisory Fund to help partners access private legal and financial advisory services.

In each of these areas – digital economy, energy, and infrastructure – we look forward to working with allies and partners. We also look forward to leveraging the new and modernized tools and improved programming from the BUILD Act that recently passed the House and is now before the Senate. This is a big one. Under the House bill, the U.S. government’s development finance capacity would more than double to $60 billion dollars.

Let me say another word about money. President Trump – and I know most of you in this room don’t like to waste a single penny – and this investment is not waste. Nor is it about giving money away. This is a strategic investment in the most competitive part of the world for years to come.

We are proud to support the BUILD Act, and to allocate $113 million dollars in immediate new funds to expand economic engagement in the Indo-Pacific. Later this week, I will make further announcements on security assistance.

But we also know government spending alone can never address the Indo-Pacific’s needs. According to the Asian Development Bank, developing countries in the region will need $26 trillion for infrastructure by the year 2030. No government nor combination of governments has that kind of money. Only the private sector does. And only if countries make themselves welcoming to private investment will those trillions of dollars get off the sidelines, into their economies, and into productive enterprises that bring jobs and prosperity to their peoples. For that to happen, Indo-Pacific leaders must prioritize transparency, anti-corruption, and responsible financing.

The U.S. government’s Indo-Pacific initiatives will be shaped by these values and buttressed by partnerships with American companies. This will reflect American values in the high standards, transparency, and adherence to the rule of law.

With American companies, citizens around the world know that what you see is what you get: honest contracts, honest terms, and no need for off-the-books mischief. Integrity in business practices is an essential pillar of our Indo-Pacific economic vision, and it is what each country in the region needs.

As I close today I want everyone to understand something: this is a commitment. I personally pledge as the Secretary of State that I will engage with you. I will engage with Congress and our foreign counterparts. So will our Ambassadors and other U.S. officials. I was delighted to make my first trip to Vietnam a few weeks ago, and there will be many more trips to the region even yet this year.

One such trip starts on Wednesday of this week. I will travel to Malaysia, to Singapore, and then on to Indonesia for the weekend. I look forward to discussing everything that I’ve shared with you today with political and business leaders in the region. ASEAN is literally at the center of the Indo-Pacific, and it plays a central role in the Indo-Pacific vision that America is presenting. This is one reason that out of the $113 million will come a package of U.S. support for important regional institutions, like ASEAN and our ASEAN Connect initiative, APEC, the Lower Mekong Initiative, and the Indian Ocean Rim Association. More on that later this week.

The Trump administration has a clear vision for the Indo-Pacific in the 21st century. It is an American vision that is deeply engaged in the region’s economic, political, cultural, and security affairs. Like so many of our Asian allies and friends, our country fought for its own independence from an empire that expected deference. We thus have never and will never seek domination in the Indo-Pacific, and we will oppose any country that does.

Rather, we aspire to a regional order, independent nations that can defend their people and compete fairly in the international marketplace. We stand ready to enhance the security of our partners and to assist them in developing their economies and societies in ways that ensure human dignity. We will help them. We will help them keep their people free from coercion or great power domination.

And today I want to close by inviting any nation and any business that wants those values enshrined in this region to partner with the United States Government. A free and open Indo-Pacific is America’s chosen course – and we hope that it will be yours too. Thank you, God bless you, and have a great day. (Applause.)
路人

TOP

美助理防長談印太地區︰必要時將與中國對抗
http://hk.on.cc/hk/bkn/cnt/cnnews/20180808/bkn-20180808111031041-0808_00952_001.html?eventsection=cn_news&eventid=402882b15d833389015d833c680c0136

美國聯手日澳推「印太願景」,對抗「一帶一路」
https://technews.tw/2018/07/31/indo-pacific-economic-vision-vs-the-belt-and-road-initiative/

中國一心想擴大國際影響力,美國出手教訓,先發動貿易戰,對中國猛課關稅,如今又推出「印太經濟願景」(Indo-Pacific Economic Vision)和中國的「一帶一路」別苗頭,似乎打算削弱中國在亞洲的影響力。

路透社、南華早報、CNN 報導,美國國務卿蓬佩奧(Mike Pompeo)週一(30 日)發布印太經濟願景,美國將祭出 1.13 億美元擴大投資亞太地區,主要聚焦新科技、能源、基礎建設三大領域。蓬佩奧表示,1.13 億美元只是頭期款,印太經濟願景是川普印太策略的主軸,美國、日本、澳洲的三邊投資協定可望強化此一提案。

美國所說的印太,涵蓋從美國西岸到印度西岸的廣大地區,中國積極拉攏的斯里蘭卡、巴基斯坦、孟加拉、尼泊爾、馬爾地夫等國,都在印太範圍之內。蓬佩奧意有所指地說,希望所有國家都有能力保護自身主權,免於其他國家威嚇,盼以和平方式解決領土和領海紛爭。美國不管在什麼地方都尋求結盟,而非宰制。

中國約砸下 1 兆美元發展一帶一路,興建連通歐亞非三洲的基礎建設。儘管美方否認新提案針對中國而來,但是各方多朝此一方向解讀。國際事務分析師 Pang Zhongying 表示,美國的印太經濟願景明顯鎖定中國的一帶一路,會讓中美關係更加複雜化。近來北京和川普政權的關係急速惡化,印太策略發布的時機相當敏感。

川普就任後高喊美國優先,又退出跨太平洋夥伴關係協議(Trans-Pacific Partnership,TPP),外界憂慮美國會減少介入亞洲事務。專家稱印太經濟願景將重申美國在亞洲的影響力,減少盟友疑慮。


美日推印太戰略 抗衡一帶一路
http://www.chinatimes.com/newspapers/20171103001126-260119
特朗普訪日:會談聚焦朝核印太戰略 抗衡中國
http://hk.on.cc/hk/bkn/cnt/news/20171106/bkn-20171106091324892-1106_00822_001.html
美日「自由印太戰略」抗衡中國一帶一路
http://sina.com.hk/news/article/20171107/0/1/4/%E7%BE%8E%E6%97%A5-%E8%87%AA%E7%94%B1%E5%8D%B0%E5%A4%AA%E6%88%B0%E7%95%A5-%E6%8A%97%E8%A1%A1%E4%B8%AD%E5%9C%8B%E4%B8%80%E5%B8%B6%E4%B8%80%E8%B7%AF-8095254.html
抗衡「一帶一路」 美日推「印太戰略」
https://www.singtaousa.com/%E8%A6%81%E8%81%9E/358077-%E6%8A%97%E8%A1%A1%E3%80%8C%E4%B8%80%E5%B8%B6%E4%B8%80%E8%B7%AF%E3%80%8D%E7%BE%8E%E6%97%A5%E6%8E%A8%E3%80%8C%E5%8D%B0%E5%A4%AA%E6%88%B0%E7%95%A5%E3%80%8D/
美日推印太战略 抗衡中国一带一路
http://www.zaobao.com/wencui/politic/story20171103-808109
日外相再提日美印澳合作,对抗中国“一带一路”
https://m.sohu.com/a/200548348_115479?_f=m-channel_8_focus_5
日外相再提日美印澳合作,對抗中國「一帶一路」
https://www.orgs.one/show/89488
抗衡中國! 日本外相:與美、澳、印建立戰略對話
https://www.ettoday.net/news/20171029/1041150.htm?t=%E6%8A%97%E8%A1%A1%E4%B8%AD%E5%9C%8B%EF%BC%81%E3%80%80%E6%97%A5%E6%9C%AC%E5%A4%96%E7%9B%B8%EF%BC%9A%E8%88%87%E7%BE%8E%E3%80%81%E6%BE%B3%E3%80%81%E5%8D%B0%E5%BB%BA%E7%AB%8B%E6%88%B0%E7%95%A5%E5%B0%8D%E8%A9%B1
日本外相再提日美印澳合作 对抗中国一带一路战略
http://mil.news.sina.com.cn/china/2017-10-27/doc-ifynhhay6045451.shtml

[ 本帖最後由 路過 於 2018-10-6 19:40 編輯 ]
路人

TOP

CIA director says China is "a threat" to U.S. economy
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zUFJePAQQ-E
路人

TOP

巴基斯坦求助IMF 中國深陷尷尬
https://china.hket.com/article/2179832/

中資在巴國投資基建,規模達620億美元
美國或借巴國困境,批中國推債務外交
中國一帶一路倡議再蒙陰影

深陷債務危機、盧比大跌(PKR)的巴基斯坦,已向國際貨幣基金組織(IMF)求援,此舉恐令中國陷入尷尬境地。箇中原因是巴國今天債台高築,被指與過度向中國舉債、拓展「大白象」基建有關;巴國困局,正為美國增加更多「活生生的例子」,批中方以「債務外交」、輸出債務危機擴大地緣影響力。

根據經濟學家推算,巴基斯坦新政府需要募集約120億美元資金,才能收拾上屆政府留下的爛攤子,避免貿易逆差狂飆、外匯儲備急降演化為金融危機。而巴基斯坦總理伊姆蘭.汗(Imran Khan)的團隊,原本打算向海灣國家尋求救助,但未獲成功,因此才不得不求助於IMF。

中資在巴國投資基建 規模達620億美元

關鍵是,巴基斯坦為何面臨今天的困局?外界普遍認定是巴國上屆政府過度向中國借債、推動基建發展的後遺症。

根據公開資料,中國正在巴基斯坦修建大量公路、發電廠和港口,整個基建項目規模高達620億美元。儘管今天已深陷債務危機,但巴基斯坦卻不能立即叫停這些「大白象」,原因是這批中國項目已有約三分之一處於建設階段或已經完工。

值得注意的是,作為中國展示一帶一路合作的示範窗口,巴基斯坦此際向IMF求助,無異於把中國推向尷尬境地,中國恐怕並不樂見。

尤其是中美角力升級時刻,美國政府官員連番指責中國政府開展「債務陷阱外交」--中方藉這些小國無法償債之機,控制他們具戰略意義的港口等基建,以此擴張中國的地緣影響力。

美國借巴國困境 批中國推債務外交

作為IMF最大股東和捐助國,美國國務卿蓬佩奧(Mike Pompeo)早前就直言,反對IMF幫助巴基斯坦向中國還債,因為這無疑是將IMF的錢,變相輪送給中國。「沒有理由拿IMF的錢(其中部分來自美國)去拯救中國的債權人或中國自己」,他說。

觀察人士指,中美角力升級之際,巴基斯坦今天的困局可能成為美國的「新理據」,指責中國借一帶一路進行債務外交、加深對中國的敵意,其後續影響待觀察。

美歐日齊來「圍堵」 一帶一路更崎嶇
https://china.hket.com/article/2180204/%E7%BE%8E%E6%AD%90%E6%97%A5%E9%BD%8A%E4%BE%86%E3%80%8C%E5%9C%8D%E5%A0%B5%E3%80%8D%20%E4%B8%80%E5%B8%B6%E4%B8%80%E8%B7%AF%E6%9B%B4%E5%B4%8E%E5%B6%87?mtc=rwamd6

日本繼美歐後,公布亞太基建投資戰略
美歐日似乎聯手抗衡中國一帶一路
美國批中國實施債務外交,露出端倪

日本首相安倍晉三前天與湄公河5國領袖會晤後,宣布《東京戰略2018》,明言要加強與東南亞諸國的基建合作,此舉頗有與中國一帶一路倡議競爭的意味。值得注意的是,美國及歐盟近期也拋出亞太基建計劃;在地緣政治大變局下,西方似乎已聯手對中國一帶一路展開戰略圍堵。

最新涉足亞太基的是日本。日本首相安倍9日在東京舉行的「湄公河5國領導人峰會」上,與柬埔寨、老撾、緬甸、泰國以及越南等領袖互動。會後,諸國發表《東京戰略2018》。

日繼美歐後 公布亞太基建戰略

根據文件,日本表示願意在「自由開放的印度太平洋」戰略下,加在公路、鐵路與通信等基建以及民生領域」,加強與湄公河5國合作;此外,文件中還專門提及中國在南海的「擴張」行動,強調周邊國家船隻及飛機在南海自由航行、飛行的重要性。

由於包括湄公河流域的東南亞,被視為中國一帶一路沿綫地區,日本的《東京戰略》有跟中國競爭的意味。

更重要是,日本此舉不是孤例,美國及日本近期也紛紛發表被稱「美歐版一帶一路」的亞太基建投資計劃。

其中,歐盟委員會上月正式提出發展亞洲基礎設施的外交政策計劃,其中包括協助亞洲地區改進運輸、能源和數字通訊基礎設施;計劃資金主要來自私營銀行和開發銀行的貸款。

美歐日似乎聯手抗衡一帶一路

歐盟委員會沒有說明計劃總共要投入多少資金,但有報道指,這一戰略可以依託提議中的600億歐元(約逾5300億港元)的基金。

至於美國,國務卿蓬佩奧(Mike Pompeo)8月時也宣布,將向新興亞洲市場的新科技、能源和基礎設施投資1.13億美元(約10.16億港元)。當時有分析指,美方的金額雖少,但象徵其在亞太的存在。

觀察人士認為,美歐日先後倡議涉足亞洲基建,顯然不是偶然;在西方輿論場中,中國被指通過一帶一路擴張在歐亞大陸勢力、乃至動搖西方傳統地緣政治格局;美歐日的舉動,頗有聯手圍堵、甚至封堵一帶一路,遏制中國戰略意圖的味道。

結合當前中美角力白熱化,再加上美日歐公布亞太基建計劃的時序先後,美國似乎是這次西方陣營站在同一陣綫,制衡中國一帶一路的「帶頭大哥」。

美批中國實施債務外交 露端倪

事實上,美方近期對一帶一路展示對抗的姿態。美國副總統彭斯日前的中國政策演說中,就直指中國用「債務外交」擴大其影響力,矛頭直指中國通過一帶一路、資金援助亞洲小國建基計劃的動作。

西方這種一致行動下,中國一帶一路如要走下去,似乎要面對更多的挑戰。
路人

TOP

印太VS一帶一路 美擲逾億美元助亞洲基建
https://china.hket.com/article/2126753/%E5%8D%B0%E5%A4%AAVS%E4%B8%80%E5%B8%B6%E4%B8%80%E8%B7%AF%20%E7%BE%8E%E6%93%B2%E9%80%BE%E5%84%84%E7%BE%8E%E5%85%83%E5%8A%A9%E4%BA%9E%E6%B4%B2%E5%9F%BA%E5%BB%BA?mtc=30010

美國國務卿蓬佩奧(Mike Pompeo)當地時間周一宣布,將向新興亞洲市場的新科技、能源和基礎設施投資1.13億美元。這項計劃預期將於蓬佩奧稍後的亞洲之行宣布。

政治觀察家指,相比中國在該地區的數十億美元投資,美方今個對亞洲基建的支援計劃顯得相當「微型」;美方的真正意圖,並非要與中國一帶一路倡議直接競爭,而是要把美國塑造成印太地區的可信賴夥伴,象徵意義大於實際。

「美國不尋求主導印太地區」

蓬佩奧在一次公開演說中表示,華盛頓需要一個「自由開放」的亞洲,不被任何國家所主導。「與許多亞洲盟國和朋友一樣,我們的國家也從一個希望我們順從的帝國贏得了獨立」。

他強調,「所以我們過去沒有、未來也絕不會尋求主導印度洋-太平洋,我們還將反對任何國家有這樣的企圖」。

蓬佩奧這一表述被指針對中國。有批評中國一帶一路倡議的人士認為,中方在亞洲的巨額投資,旨在傳播中國的影響力,並讓很多國家背上巨額債務負擔。

而在蓬佩奧提出的新投資策略中,美國將投資2500萬美元來擴大美國對該地區的科技出口,今年將增加近5000萬美元來幫助各國生產或儲備能源資源,並創建一個新的援助網來提振基礎設施發展。

蓬佩奧將於亞洲之行公布計劃

蓬佩奧表示,美國已經與蒙古簽訂了價值3.5億美元的投資協議,以開發新水源。他還表示,美國政府的千年挑戰公司(Millennium Challenge Corporation,MCC)即將敲定一項協議,向斯里蘭卡的運輸和其他改革投資數億美元。

「這些資金只是美國致力於印度洋-太平洋地區和平和繁榮新時代的定金」,蓬佩奧稱。

蓬佩奧稱他本周將訪問馬來西亞、新加坡和印尼,計劃在這些地區宣布新的安全援助。

美國國務院政策規劃主任Brian Hook在蓬佩奧演講前表示者,美國沒在與中國主要由國家主導的倡議競爭。「我們做事的方式是讓政府的角色非常溫和,聚焦於幫助企業做它們最擅長的事情」。

分析:美並非與一帶一路直接競爭

美國康奈爾大學貿易教授暨國際貨幣基金組織(IMF)中國部前主管Eswar Prasad稱,美方的計劃「無論從規模還是廣度,這些計劃都沒有中國那麼有野心」。

亞洲社會政策研究所的Daniel Russel表示,「宣布對整個地區投資1.13億美元來支持經濟活動,感覺有點平淡無奇」。

分析普遍認為,很難看到美國的舉措能在該地區激起太大波瀾。美方的計劃,旨在把美國塑造成印太地區的可信賴夥伴,象徵意義多於實際。
路人

TOP

發新話題